"Ramadan Spiritual Sustenance"
الإمامُ الباقر عليه السلام:
بُنِيَ الإسلامُ على خَمسَ دَعائمَ : إقامِ الصَّلاةِ ، وإيتاءِ الزَّكاةِ ، وصَومِ شَهرِ رَمَضانَ ، وحَجِّ البَيتِ الحَرامِ ، والوَلايَةِ لَنا أهلَ البَيتِ
Al-Imam al-Baqir (ʿa):
Islam has been founded on five pillars: the establishment of prayer, the giving of the alms-tax, the fast of the month of Ramadan, the pilgrimage to the Sanctified House, and [the acknowledgment of] our guardianship, the Ahl al-bayt.
Amāli al-Mufīd, p. 353, no. 4
Are the rulings of travelers applied on those travelling within the megacities?
Irrespective of how large a city is the rulings for travelers remain the same.
A Commentary on the Supplicatory Prayer of Ramadan 15th
Thesupplicatory prayer of Ramadan 15th is as follows:
اللهُمَّ ارْزُقْنى فيهِ طاعَةَ الْخاشِعينَ، وَاشْرَحْ فيهِ صَدْرى بِانابَةِ الْمُخْبِتينَ، بِامانِكَ يا امانَ الْخآئِفين
“O’ Lord! Grant me a sustenance of submission [to you] like that of the humble ones, and expand my breast with a submissive repentance, [I ask You] by Your Reassurance, O’ Reassurer of the fearful!”
The key points in the supplicatory prayer of Ramadan 15th are the following:
A review of the concept of “spiritual sustenance”; exploring the concept of Khushū‘ [humble submission to Allah]; the reality of Khushū‘ and total obedience; the proper method of apologizing and accepting apologies and the rulings regarding them; and the constructive role of fear as a deterrent against sins.
* Sustenance does not merely include Material Blessings
Sustenance, as it is viewed by the Islamic teachings, has a broad scope and it comprises both the material blessings which are bestowed on one as well as the spiritual ones. It might even be argued that true sustenance is the spiritual sustenance.
The term sustenance has been used frequently in the Islamic supplications and supplicatory prayers to refer to the spiritual blessings which Allah bestows on the people. For instance, in order to ask Allah to grant one the opportunity to make the Hajj pilgrimage, one would pray as follows:
اللَّهُمَّ ارْزُقْنِي حَجَّ بَيْتِكَ الْحَرَامِ
“O’ Lord! Grant me the sustenance of making the Hajj pilgrimage to your Sacred House!”
* The Concept of Khushū‘ [Humble Submission to Allah] in the Quran
Khushū‘ is a sense of extreme humbleness, both physically and spiritually, which one experiences when being in the presence of an extremely respectable and great person or entity. This feeling is so powerful that its manifestations can be visibly seen on one’s body. 
The Quran has also used the term “Khushū‘”to refer to barren and arid lands. This meaning when taken allegorically for man, implies that man needs to be humble and motionless, much like a barren land, before the greatness of Allah.
* The Distinctive Characteristics and Qualities of the “Humble Ones” according to the Quran
One of the verses of the Quran which has referred to the humble ones is the following:
“… for they [were a family who] would actively and readily engage in charitable work and would implore Us yearnfully and fearfully, and they were humble to Us.”
This verse has made reference to the kind of humbleness which is accompanied by a sense of reverence and a fear mixed with a sense of responsibility. It shows that, unlike the mean-spirited people, the humble ones would never fall in to negligence and arrogance when they are granted some blessing or bounty.
The humble ones would never forget the needy and would be quick to engage in charitable work. They also remember Allah, whether they are needy or rich, or healthy or sick and they would never fall prey to arrogance and self-importance because of the abundance of blessings that sometimes came their way; they were at all times humble and obedient to Allah.
* True Humbleness in Serving Allah
One of the character qualities of the pious is that they are truly humble when serving and worshipping Allah. This means that their acts of worship are not mere cursory, casual, and soulless physical activities but profound acts of heartfelt devotion which are, in effect, a means for them of working their way toward attaining nearness to Allah.
* The Meaning of Mukhbitīn [those who humbly submit to Allah]
The word Mukhbitīn is used in this prayer to refer to those who humbly submit to Allah. Allah has also described them as individuals whose hearts become fearful when the Name of Allah is mentioned, who are patient in the face of adversities and calamities, who uphold and perform Ṣalāt, and who give out in charity from whatever bounties they are given. 
* Repentance requires Tolerance and Open-mindedness
Many of the people who do something wrong never apologize for it as if they think that apologizing is humiliating for them because it makes others think less of them; this is why not only do not they apologize for their mistakes, they even believe that they have every right to do whatever they want!
This, however, is a grave mistake; there is no shame in apologizing to the people for one’s mistakes just as there is no shame in repenting of one’s sins and asking Allah for forgiveness.
If all the people are open-minded, tolerant, and brave enough to apologize for their mistakes, many problems would be easily and quickly eliminated before they are made too complicated to solve.
Therefore, if we observe fairness and apologize when we are wrong, we would ensure a peaceful life for all the people around us by cultivating the moral virtue of I‘tidhār [making apologies after making mistakes] in ourselves.
* The Constructive Role of Fear as a Deterrent against Sins
Fear is an effective deterrent against rebellion and indulging in sins. We can liken human life to a vehicle which cannot move without an engine and cannot control its speed in dangerous roads without a brake.
Similarly, though man needs to be free to make choices and choose to obey Allah willingly, they also need to have something to deter them from transgression and sins. The following tradition from Imam Ali (‘a) highlights this reality:
“A person who fears [Allah] will be safe.”
The issues of hope, as a driving element, and fear, as a deterrent, are of important roles within the framework of ethics and moral training and have been greatly highlighted in the Islamic traditions. Some traditions have mentioned that if an individual performs all of the possible acts of worship which someone can perform, they should still consider it insufficient and shouldn’t become arrogant over what they have done. On the other hand, if someone has committed all sorts of sins, they shouldn’t lose hope in the mercy of Allah and their ability to change, for the guidance is a door which is always open.
In essence, the Imam ('a) is telling us in this tradition that one is not a true believer unless they possess both of these attributes within themselves. If one truly fears Allah’s wrath and retribution, they will not sin and if they sin they do not sincerely and truly fear Allah’s wrath. Similarly, if one has hope in the mercy of Allah, they will act in a way which makes them deserving of this mercy, and if they do not act as such, their hope is a false hope. We should recognize the men of faith through their attributes of hope and fear, and the signs of these attributes will be manifested in their actions. In reality, our actions are the manifestation of our inner reality.
Interestingly enough, these two attributes apply to the social level as well. Just as an individual should not become arrogant or hopeless, the society as a whole should also not become arrogant or hopeless. In other words, a society must always have hope in achieving victory, and at the same time, it should fear its enemies and be watchful at all times. Thus, a society should be governed by an atmosphere of fear and hope whereby it is vigilant against its enemies and motivated to progress towards its goals.
In his letter to Mālik al-Ashtar, known as the covenant of Mālik al-Ashtar, Imam 'Alī ('a) said the following: ‘If your enemy seeks peace, then accept it from him but do not become negligent of him after the peace treaty, for he may sneak up on you (through means of the treaty) and strike a blow’. Every year, certain superpowers announce that they have set aside a great amount of money in order to foment regime change in the Islamic Republic of Iran. In reality, their announcement shows their arrogance and it causes the people of Iran to be vigilant about their enemies.
When faced with such an enemy, it is clear that things such as dialogue or compromise will not work, for they are openly announcing that they wish to destroy this country. In addition, they have not only focused on our country alone, rather they have plans for the entire Middle East, as well as many other resource-rich nations. These superpowers wish to place rulers in all these countries who are in reality puppets and who will give them the resources of the country for next to nothing.
The Muslim nations should awake to this dangerous reality. Thankfully, their plans for our country have not yielded any fruit and our entire nation is vigilant and always prepared to resist any such encroachments on their rights and their very destiny as human beings.
 The New Mafātīḥ, p. 815.
 Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 20, p. 374.
 Al-Mu’minūn, 2 [Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 14, p. 213].
 The Lexicon of Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, p. 204.
 Islamic Ethics as reflected in the Nahj al-Balāghah [based on the Muttaqīn Sermon], vol. 2, p. 178.
 Al-Anbiyā’, 90.
 Ibid, vol. 3, p. 187.
 Islamic Ethics as reflected in the Nahj al-Balāghah [based on the Muttaqīn Sermon], vol. 2, p. 175.
 The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 7, p. 568.
 Al-Ḥajj, 34-41; Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 14, pp. 117-136.
 The Lexicon of Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, p. 512.
 The Rays of Guidance: a Series of Ethical Discussions, p. 242.
 The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 363.
 Nahj al-Balāghah with a Farsi Translation, p. 785.