Examining the Various Dimensions to the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons From the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

Examining the Various Dimensions to the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons From the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

It is most unfortunate that most of the powerful countries which always boast of being the sole protectors and promoters of human rights have no restriction or bounds in the use of weapons on the battlefield‌

Examining the Various Dimensions to the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

From the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi


Table of Contents


The Prohibition of WMDs by Man’s Innate Nature

Ethics and the Weapons of Mass Destruction

Liberal Economics and the Proliferation of WMDs

The Value of Human life measured by Weapons of Mass Destruction

The Detrimental Impacts of Chemical Weapons on the Environment



We live in an era when warmongering and mass murder of the people in various corners of the world by means of weapons of mass destruction has turned in to a serious danger which threatens the very existence of human communities.[1]

This challenge of the modern era is getting worse by the day mostly due to the terrible arms race between the western states, each striving hard to develop and produce deadlier weapons.[2]

Perhaps one of the deadliest weapons developed and produced in large quantities by the western arms producers are countless different chemical weapons. Now the western countries are making huge amounts of illegitimate money through selling chemical weapons as their sales are now skyrocketing.

However, in order to push their sales to an even higher record, the western arms producers together with their governments are creating engineered conflicts, draining the revenues of various countries by selling them arms.   

The insatiable greed of these corporations for more money has led the whole world to a dangerous and endless arms race and toward a doomsday world-war in which millions of people will be killed with weapons of mass destruction.[3] 

Considering the critical situation of the world of today, the most dangerous course of action for us would be to remain indifferent to these terrible facts and allow the corrupt superpowers to continue with their destructive activities which threaten the world peace.[4]

If the people of the world choose to remain silent and do nothing in the face of this danger, achieving worldwide peace, something that the entire humanity has aspired to for a long time, will remain a mere dream forever.[5]

It is worth noting that in order for one to take actions against the proliferation of comical weapons as one of the most lethal weapons of mass destruction, one first needs to understand the various aspects to the prohibition of these weapons. This way, the whole of mankind will be motivated to take more effective actions in order to hinder the warmongering governments which make huge amounts of money through supplying other nations with deadly weapons of mass destruction.

Finally, shedding light on the reasons behind the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, including chemical weapons, can help achieve world peace through enlightening the people, strengthening their faith, and solidifying ethical principles within human communities.[6]

The Prohibition of WMDs by Man’s Innate Nature

Unlike what many materialistic schools of thought have led us to believe, human life is based, not on the law of the survival of the fittest, but on the law of cooperation for the survival of all.[7]

Therefore, there is no reason for human beings to enter in to wars with one another, as they can live much better through cooperating with one another toward a better life. If fighting was completely pointless in the past, it is pointless and exceedingly dangerous today.

This is because the wars of the modern era, fought with terrible weapons of mass destruction, threaten the very existence of mankind on earth; these weapons can annihilate large numbers of people in a matter of seconds and they will do irreversible damage to the human communities and the environment.[8]

Theories like militarism which have always been popular among warmongers need to be fought and eradicated, just like a dangerous disease. This is because this idea has turned in to a pretext for warmongers to resort to violence in order to achieve their selfish goals.

No matter how lucrative militarist theories have proven for corporates and arms producers, they have meant nothing for ordinary people other than more war, dreadful loss of innocent lives and resources, destruction of cities and homes, and the escalation of violence between different nations. This, however, is something that the innate human nature will never deem acceptable.[9] 

The evidence for this can be found in a powerful feeling of guilt that even the most atrocious criminals feel, even though they might deny it, after committing crimes against humanity. This is an automatic self-reproaching mechanism inherent within man’s nature which, when he commits any sort of wrongdoing, it will punish him.[10]

Many war criminals throughout history have tried to justify their terrible crimes in some way. For instance, the pilots who actually carried out the atomic attacks on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last days of WWII along with the then American president Harry S. Truman have all tried to justify their unspeakable crimes by saying that these attacks were necessary in order to prevent further bloodshed.[11] However, such statements are clear proofs of these people’s profoundly uneasy conscience; moreover, this also indicates that one cannot turn off or deceive one’s conscience.[12]

As it was discussed above, these people needed to go on with their lives and their troubled conscience would not allow them to lead a normal life, even though they concealed it within themselves and denied it. How could such atrocious criminals live their normal lives without trying to assuage their guilty conscience by making such statements and trying to make everyone, even themselves, believe them?[13]

The heinous justifications of the former US president regarding the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of people by the use of nuclear weapons is also indicative of the fact that it is impossible to suppress one’s conscience in order to be able to commit atrocities. This is something that the American warmongers have constantly done in order to make way for their lower desires to take control of their decisions in order to achieve their selfish interests and their ambitions at all costs.[14]


Ethics and the Weapons of Mass Destruction

Arguably, most of the miseries of mankind in the modern era, including countless civil and international wars, and the production and sale of lethal weapons of mass destruction are the result of abandoning the rules of ethics.[15]

It is most unfortunate that most of the powerful countries which always boast of being the sole protectors and promoters of human rights have no restriction or bounds in the use of weapons on the battlefield.

When it comes to fighting their wars, powerful countries know no bounds in the use of illegal weapons of mass destruction as long as they can help them achieve their goals.

Today the greatest self-proclaimed protector of human rights!! in the world is the United States; however, like all corrupt superpowers throughout the history, the US also knows no boundaries in the use of weapons. Examples of this US hypocrisy are the US use of two atomic bombs against Japan in WWII and its use of lethal chemical agents against its enemies during various wars, taking devastating tolls on civilian populations.[16]     

Of course the west verbally defends what it calls the rules of ethics in wars; today many lethal weapons are considered prohibited and long speeches are also given in the west concerning the prohibition of attacking civilian populations during wars and the rights of the prisoners of war.[17]

However, a quick glance at the contemporary wars fought or supported by the west reveals the opposite; the corrupt western superpowers have never been bound by the rules of ethics in practice whenever they entered a war.[18]

This serious challenge has arisen while ethics dictates that all its rules be observed during all phases of wars.[19] The rules of ethics dictate that no one is allowed to start a war against anyone else merely to further their selfish interests and that one must take up arms and go in to battle only when a war is imposed on him by an invading enemy.[20]

These principles indicate that no war should be started with intentions such as revenge, personal ambitions, expansion, occupation of other countries, or exploiting their riches. One is allowed to enter a war when it is fought with the purpose of establishing justice, putting the divinely-sent law in to practice, promoting monotheism, defending the true divinely-sent religion, and eliminating corruption.[21]

In other words, being bound by these sublime values is even more important than achieving victory in a battle. This is because any battle must be fought to ensure the preservation of these same values and so the purpose is not winning the battle but to safeguard these values.[22]

This Godly approach and perspective will have human beings observe the rules of ethics even in the most violent moments of their lives, i.e. when fighting an enemy on the battlefield. This way, mankind will remember to remain merciful even when being at the middle of the escalation of violence and to fight the enemy and at the same time not transgress human values and the rules of ethics.[23]

Indeed these important principles which call upon mankind to observe the rules of ethics and human values when confronting an enemy on the battlefield and after the end of a war are the ultimate realization of great human emotions and the pacifist human spirit.[24]

As it was discussed above, wars must be fought only in order to establish justice and eliminate injustice and tyranny and this is why the rules of ethics must be abided by in wars. Given this perspective, the use of weapons of mass destruction in wars is totally pointless, because the use of such lethal weapons is an act of sheer injustice and oppression.

The use of weapons of mass destruction, no matter who uses it and against whom it is used, is the greatest crime against humanity and the most inhuman and unethical undertaking in wars.[25]

The major victims of WMDs are women and children, the part of population that has no power to fight or defend itself, plays no part in the war itself, and must naturally be granted immunity.[26]

Moreover, the vulnerable, including the elderly, the injured, and all of the individuals who do not have the power to fight are the other major victims of WMDs.[27]

Considering these facts, it is incumbent upon all governments to observe the rules of ethics and human values in wars. They should refrain from using WMDs themselves and they should work together to strictly prohibit the proliferation and the use of WMDs all around the world.[28]

It is noteworthy that, if all the people of the world are to live in peace and away from war and bloodshed, they must pressure their governments to include the rules of ethics in all international treaties. In order to achieve that, all nations of the world must j o i n hands in order to completely eliminate the weapons of mass destruction in the world and to spread moral values within the international community.[29]


Liberal Economics and the Proliferation of WMDs


Financial issues, particularly the production and generation of revenue will only make sense when it is pursued within the framework of human values.[30]

This is while issues such as human and ethical values are completely disregarded in liberal economics.[31] The reason behind this is that liberal economics and capitalism are based on the idea of generating more revenue by any means necessary, with one of such means being the selling of weapons of mass destruction.[32]

It is based on this economic framework that many governments engage in the rather lucrative yet dirty business of lethal arms sale, and even in selling chemical and biological weapons if they find it profitable.[33]

Of course the western countries denounce the production and use of chemical and biological weapons in their media and in their laws. But the fact of the matter is that the production and trade of chemical and biological weapons is a serious business for many countries around the world.[34]

This business is so lucrative that even many powerful states which boast about fighting the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons in the media own a large share of this industry and business.[35]

In the meantime, the huge weapons conglomerates are busy creating engineered wars and crises in order to boost their business. They use their governments as their tools in order to create conflicts and then sell more arms to different warring parties.

Moreover, these corporates and their governments constantly make secret plots in order to create false demands for arms and to meet the created demands with their own manufactured weapons of mass destruction.[36]

The western countries pretend to be promoters of peace in the world while, in practice, they constantly try to provoke conflicts in order to sell huge amounts of arms to warring parties and make tremendous amounts of money this way.[37]

The profiteering attitude of the west together with their complete lack of regard for ethics has brought them even to support and arm terrorist groups in different corners of the world in order to create conflicts and, subsequently, demands for their weapons. But perhaps the greatest catastrophe in the modern era has been the arming of the Daesh terrorist group with chemical weapons by the corrupt superpowers.[38]

There are very few world powers which are capable of producing chemical weapons and, there is no doubt that one of these powers has supplied one of the most lethal weapons of mass destruction to the most brutal terrorist group on earth.[39]

The reason why the crimes of these corrupt powers are very rarely exposed is that, in addition to the arms industry, these world powers have most of the mass media under their control. By using these media, they manipulate reality and lie to the people of the world and they use their lies as a cover in order to produce and sell more lethal arms to various customers all around the world.[40]

One thing that should be kept in mind is that the corrupt superpowers find it in their best interests to arm the terrorists to the teeth and use them as a weapon to destabilize the Muslim countries in the Middle East.[41]

This way, not only will they be able to exploit the riches of the war-torn countries of the region, they will also pressure the Arab dictators of the region to pay them huge amounts of their petrodollars. This is because, on the one hand, these dictatorships are pressured by the corrupt superpowers to further finance and arm the terrorists and, on the other, they feel they must protect themselves against the same terrorists.

This hypocritical western agenda has rendered all the efforts by the independent countries toward chemical weapons disarmament futile.[42]


The Value of Human life measured by Weapons of Mass Destruction


Human life is valued greatly in all divinely-sent religions as well as the human laws. According to the laws of Islam, in particular, the life of innocent humans has been called strictly inviolable. According to Islamic teachings, any innocent life is so valuable that taking it equals killing the whole of mankind altogether.[43] [44]

Therefore, neither divinely-sent laws nor human reason allow anyone to hurt an innocent person and they both consider producing any products that are harmful for humanity prohibited. This is particularly true about any products that can entail huge social detriments or can cause major violation of human rights. 

A clear example of such products are weapons of mass destruction, as they can cause massive casualties, the destruction of entire communities and the human environment.[45]

As it was discussed above, both the divinely-sent laws and human reason dictate that human life must be valued and protected. This entails that any weapon that can take the lives of large numbers of people indiscriminately and is a serious threat to the life and wealth of human beings must be prohibited.[46]

The issue of WMDs is a problem of the modern era; in pre-modern battles, most battles were man-to-man battles which were fought with close combat weapons.[47] However, as technology progressed during the past two centuries, battles began to be fought on wider fields using more lethal weapons capable of destroying many enemy soldiers at a time instead of one at a time.[48]

Today, WMDs have turned in to such terrible weapons that can destroy entire communities in a matter of seconds, annihilating all living things, including people, animals, and even plants within their radius.[49]

An example of such weapons of death is the two nuclear bombs which wiped out the two Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki out of existence, killing over two hundred thousand people. Another example is the chemical weapons used by the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein against the Iraqi city of Halabchah and the Iranian city of Sardasht, taking horrendous tolls on the civilian population of these two cities. A more recent example of the use of WMDs is the Daesh’s chemical attack against the civilian population in the Syrian city of Aleppo.

These examples further show how lightly the issue of human life is being treated by the manufacturers of WMDs and what severe consequences the profiteering of some corporations have had for humanity. So far, countless innocent people, including men, women, children, and the elderly who played no part in wars have lost their lives to the WMDs.[50] 


The Detrimental Impacts of Chemical Weapons on the Environment


The ultimate goal of all manufacturing activities within the framework of capitalism is “maximizing profits and minimizing costs”. Within this specific economic system, any undertaking that can lead to more revenue is considered permissible, even if it entails social or environmental disasters which can lead to the destruction of human race on earth.

It is based on this economic system that the development and production of chemical and biological weapons is justified and vigorously pursued.[51] Although modern industries have done a great deal toward facilitating human life on earth, their products and production processes have had destructive effects on the environment.

But perhaps the most dangerous product of modern industries have been the weapons of mass destruction; if action is not taken to prohibit and eliminate these lethal weapons of death, they can cause much more widespread destructions than the other industrial products of the modern era.[52]   

Today, only the nuclear weapons in the arsenal of the world powers is enough for destroying the earth several times![53] This serious threat forced the people’s hand to act quickly in order to save humanity, the earth, the environment, and all the living creatures before a disaster destroys everything.[54]

Accordingly, more than 230 international environmental agreements were made but most of them were not put in to effective practice. This, together with the fact that some world powers, including the US, have refused to be a party to these agreements has left environmental problems unresolved.[55]

The continuation of the environmental tragedy which is still going on in the world and the inadequate actions taken to overcome it has seriously jeopardized the life of the future generations of mankind.[56]

The prospects of the future of mankind on earth are so bleak that everyone fears that a great catastrophe could take place in the not-too-distant future by which mankind is to be wiped out entirely. This could happen following a large-scale war in which the environment is entirely destroyed due to the widespread use of dangerous WMDs.[57]


USA, the biggest Violator of the Chemical Weapons Convention


The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty adopted in order to outlaw the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.[58] It was the result of two decades of intensive negotiations which was finally concluded and signed in 1993 in Paris and came in to force in 1997.[59]

However, in spite of their rather beautiful names, the International Convention for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in general and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in particular have turned in to political leverages used by the world powers against their adversaries.[60] 

Meanwhile, the greatest efforts toward sabotaging the international efforts for the effective prohibition of chemical weapons has been made by the US, a country which is itself guilty of proliferating the most lethal WMDs.[61]

This irresponsible attitude of the US government shows that it is an arrogant state whose statesmen and officials have cold hearts and have lost their humanity. The US statesmen behave in a way that convinces any impartial observer that they enjoy preying on the other nations like wild animals!

They are, in effect, wolves in sheep’s clothing who may look like human beings yet are deprived of the most basic human emotions and virtues![62] The US has always been the greatest state sponsor of terrorism in the world and has used terrorists in order to further its selfish interests.

It has supplied all sorts of lethal weapons, including chemical weapons, to terrorists and dictators, causing the deaths of large number of innocent civilians all around the world. In order to substantiate this claim one needs only to look at the statistics of weapons sale in the world; the official statistics show that the US sells billions of dollars’ worth of arms every year, and weapons must be used somewhere sooner or later![63] 

Furthermore, the US which is the sole country with the greatest stockpiles of chemical weapons has so far evaded the elimination of its chemical weapons on the flimsy excuses such as “technical problems”.[64]

The US and its allies have long sold their souls to the devil for petrodollars, selling WMDs to dictators and terrorists, causing dreadful losses of lives in Syria, Iran, and Iraq. They have not only turned a blind eye to the crimes against humanity committed by their puppets in the region, they are themselves the greatest war criminals guilty of using chemical weapons in various corners of the world.[65]

For instance, during the decade-long Vietnam War, more than four hundred thousand Vietnamese civilians were killed or debilitated due to the US chemical attacks.[66] Moreover, in the years that followed those attacks, more than five hundred thousand children with birth defects were born in the affected areas of Vietnam and more than two million cases of cancer and other incurable diseases were reported.

According to the reports released by the Red Cross, more than one million Vietnamese suffered from debilitations or diseases caused by the Agent Orange, a US made chemical agent.[67]

No matter how many international organizations for protecting world peace are created, the US continues to disregard them all and bully the entire world. For instance, after the US was unable to convince the UN Security Council to authorize military intervention in Iraq, it unilaterally invaded Iraq.

The US then tried to justify its unauthorized act of violating the sovereignty of Iraq and its occupation with the feeble excuse of destroying the weapons of mass destruction. However, after causing the death of millions of innocent Iraqi people and following years of the occupation of that country, the US and its allies were unable to find even a single WMD in the war-torn country.[68]

During its unwarranted invasion of Iraq, the US used several sorts of prohibited weapons against even the Iraqi civilians. These included, but were not limited to, white phosphorous munitions, depleted uranium ammunitions, and different sorts of chemical agents. Due to the use of these prohibited weapons in Iraq, a large number of the Iraqi population is now suffering from incurable diseases.[69]

Today, there are a large number of Iraqi people suffering from cancer and the number is still on the rise; moreover, the adverse effects of these weapons on the next generation of the Iraqis is also visible. Every year countless children with birth defects are being born in the country.[70]

These acts of sheer brutality and crimes against humanity committed by the US has brought the international community to take actions to strictly prohibit the development and use of WMDs. However, like always, the US, who constantly boasts of the protection of human rights, disagreed with this decision and prevented actions from being taken toward that goal![71]

It is rather amazing how, every time the international community tries to take actions against the production and use of WMDs, the US rises up against the prohibition of these lethal weapons. Obviously, the one and only thing that the US and its allies value is making more money and further spreading their hegemony by any means possible.[72]

According to many sources, not only has the US not eliminated its huge stockpiles of chemical weapons, something that runs counter with the international conventions for chemical weapons disarmament, it has made billions of dollars through selling these lethal agents!

By so doing, the US has turned itself in to the greatest producer and exporter of the most lethal weapons of mass destruction and the most flagrant violator of Chemical Weapons Convention.[73]


Iran, the Greatest Victim of Chemical Weapons


One of the most curious things about the international treaties such as the Chemical Weapons Convention is that the western powers have created them only as a means in their hands to pressure their adversaries and make more money.[74]

In order to better understand this western hypocrisy, take the example of Saudi Arabia; since this dictatorship’s policies are completely in line with the interests of the west, it is considered an exemplary state by the west and is never criticized for its crimes!

This is while Saudi Arabia is guilty of crimes against humanity in its brutal invasion of the impoverished country of Yemen; it has also used various sorts of prohibited munitions, including chemical weapons, against the Yemeni civilians. However, not a single serious reaction against these horrible crimes has been seen on the part of the western powers.

On the contrary, the I.R. of Iran is under tremendous pressure by the western powers, not because it has done something wrong, but because it refuses to behave in a way that would ensure the illegitimate interests of the western powers in the region.

This is why Iran is accused by these countries of sponsoring terrorism, violating human rights, and producing chemical weapons although it is itself one of the greatest victims of terrorism and chemical weapons. Iran has never acted in violation of human rights, has never supported terrorism but has fiercely fought it, and is always bound by the human and ethical rules.[75]

It should be noted that the Iranian people are the victims of more than 250 chemical attacks by Saddam Hussein during the 8-year-war imposed on them by Iraq. More than one hundred thousand Iranians lost their lives in these attacks and many more are still suffering because of those attacks.[76]

For instance, in one of these attacks the Iraqi Army bombed the Iranian city of Sardasht with chemical weapons which left five thousand civilians killed instantly. Today, after several decades, still the people of Sardasht suffer various sorts of health problems due to the long-term effects of those chemical agents.[77]

What is even more tragic about the deployment of chemical weapons in Iran is that such chemical attacks repeatedly occurred during the eight years of the invasion of Iran by Iraq yet, the so-called international organizations, and particularly the UN Security Council, remained dead silent about them![78]

This double standard of the international organizations has continued to the present time. Iranian government and people have filed several petitions to different organizations asking for real actions to be taken to eliminate chemical weapons in the world, bring the war criminals who produced, sold, and used chemical weapons to justice, and to punish anyone who threatens other nations with the use of chemical weapons. However, all these petitions have been thrown aside and neglected by the international organizations.[79]

These repeated demands by Iran from the international community to condemn and prohibit the use of any and all sorts of WMDs by anyone, anywhere, and under any circumstances are a reflection of the religious beliefs of Iranian people. They are also indicative of the strategic policies of the Islamic republic of Iran.[80]

International Community and Non-Proliferation of WMDs

The world of today hungers for justice and peace and it is in dire need of these two. Yet, achieving justice and peace is virtually impossible without the strict enforcement of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

While the people of the world are calling for a prohibition of the development, sale, and use of lethal weapons, the fast development of industries all around the world has taken the world powers’ lethal arms race to a whole new level![81]

Under current conditions, it is clear for all that the UN neither has enough power to actually prohibit powerful countries from proliferating weapons of mass destruction, nor can it affect the decisions made by the world powers regarding international issues. In fact, this is why the UN has never been able to prevent the use of WMDs in the world.[82]

The only military force of the UN, the peacekeepers, have had an awful performance in doing their job; for instance, in the tragic wars of the Middle East, wherever the peacemakers had been deployed, they retreated as soon as they felt some escalation in the war zones.

How could such an organization without enough power to enforce its own resolutions prevent the use of WMDs such as chemical and biological weapons?[83]

A more recent example of the use of chemical weapons is the case of the Takfīrī terrorists in Syrian; over the past few years the Takfīrī terrorists have conducted multiple chemical attacks against civilians in Syrian but the UN has failed, in all these years, to even take a strong verbal stance against them!

Let us be reminded that this is not a powerful government, but a bunch of brutal terrorists against whom the UN has failed to take adequate actions. How can such a weak international organization put the Chemical Weapons Convention in to actual practice?[84]

But perhaps what is most unfortunate is that the UN Security Council, which is supposedly responsible for the protection of peace and security in the world, practices blatant discrimination with regard to different world issues.

By granting its five permanent members, i.e. the US, UK, Russia, France, and China veto power, the UN Security Council has completely disregarded the worldwide demand of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is because these so-called permanent members of the UN Security Council are themselves the owners of the greatest chemical, biological, and nuclear arsenals in the world![85]

Clearly, then, in order to find a way out of the WMDs non-proliferation dilemma, the structure of the UN has to be changed and the possessors of the biggest WMD stockpiles in the world must be removed from power in the UN.

The UN then must be run by the greatest experts and representatives from all the countries of the world with equal power in order to take impartial decisions regarding the world problems. The new body of experts and diplomats will need to work together in order to come up with a practical plan in order to effectively enforce the non-proliferation treaties and conventions.[86]






The last words of this paper are directed to the UN Secretary General: a blatant discrimination is being practiced in the world today. The UN is allowing the Takfīrī terrorists to use chemical weapons and evade punishment on the one hand, and it accuses independent countries, which are themselves victims of WMDs, of developing such weapons.

By doing so, the UN is destroying its international image and violating the important ethical and human values and rules. This will, in turn, pave the way for other criminals in the world to commit any sort of crime that they like, knowing that they too could evade punishment if what they do is in line with the interests of the world powers.

What plans do you have to prevent the use of chemical weapons in other regions of the world? Do you think it is enough merely to express one’s condolences at the mass murder of innocent people without taking effective measures in order to prevent such tragic incidents in the future?[87]  

You know, better than anyone, that unlike nuclear weapons, chemical weapons are not restricted to any specific country or group. Many countries who have actually used chemical agents in their wars now stand up and shamelessly read statements, saying that they answer to no one regarding how they decide to fight their wars!

This means nothing but that the arrogant world powers have become even more insolent in their defiance of the humane and ethical values and rules and despite the worldwide hatred of and objection to their production, sale, and use of lethal weapons.[88]

Indeed, if things continue to be pursued the way they are today, the world and all the people in it will have a dark future, a future full of insecurity, war, and bloodshed.[89]

Assuredly, if the war criminals who have committed the crime of the use of WMDs are not brought to justice, this will set a dangerous precedent which will plague the entire human world in the future. If we do not take action now, the future generations will reproach us because of our inaction and because of leaving them at the mercy of war criminals, though we had the chance to put an end to their reign over the world.[90]

Dear UN secretary General! The public opinion is now ready to see real actions taken toward the effective enforcement of the non-proliferation of chemical weapons and it would be most unfortunate if this opportunity is not seized.[91]

Today, all the people of the world expect you, as the UN Secretary General to react properly to the tragedies that are happening every now and then in all corners of the world. The people of the world expect the UN Committee on Disarmament to take real actions in order to prevent crimes against humanity to be committed again using weapons of mass destruction. Only through real actions in this regard can the public trust in the UN be restored.[92]


Researched and edited by: the news editorial of the website of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi’s office





[1] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 72.

[2] The Secrets behind the Underdevelopment of the East, p. 94.

[3] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 65.

[4] The Creed of Compassion, p. 66.

[5] The Creator of the Universe, p. 108.

[6] Islam in a Glance, p. 102.

[7] The Message of the Quran, vol. 10, p. 324.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Great Leaders, p. 62.

[11] Ibid, p. 63.

[12] Ibid, p. 70.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid, p. 72.

[15] The Great Oaths of the Quran, p. 86.

[16] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 189.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid, p. 188.

[20] The Historic Debates of Imam al-Ridhā (‘a) with the Followers of different Religions and Schools of Thought, p. 94.

[21] Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 2, p. 18.

[22] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 189.

[23] The Message of the Quran, vol. 10, p. 314.

[24] Ibid, p. 315.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 2, p. 19.

[27] Ibid, p. 20.

[28] The Message of the Quran, vol. 10, p. 316.

[29] The Great Oaths of the Quran, p. 100.

[30] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 111.

[31] Ibid, p. 333.

[32] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 3, p. 625.

[33] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 111.

[34] Ibid, p. 334.

[35] Beautiful Parables of the Quran, vol. 1, p. 158.

[36] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 326.

[37] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 612.

[38] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 366.

[39] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 4, p. 639.

[40] Ibid.

[41] The Beautiful Parables of the Quran, vol. 1, p. 158.

[42] Ibid.

[43] من‏ قتل‏ نفسا بغير نفس او فساد في الأرض فكأنما قتل الناس جميعا(al-Mā’idah:32)

[44] Tafsīr-i Nemūneh, vol. 12, p. 105.

[45] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 334.

[46] Ibid.

[47] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 13, p. 779.

[48] Ethics in the Quran, vol. 1, p. 15.

[49] Ibid, vol. 2, p. 103.

[50] You are being Asked [A Series of Quran-based Questions addressed to the Prophet of Islam (ṣ)], p. 70.

[51]The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 324.

[52] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 6, p. 437.

[53] The Secrets behind the Underdevelopment of the East, p. 224.

[54] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 6, p. 437.

[55] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 61.

[56] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 6, p. 437.

[57] The Worldwide Government of Mahdi (‘a), p. 16.

[58] The full name of this convention is “Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction”.

[59] The Worldwide Government of Mahdi (‘a), p. 16.

[60] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 324.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Beautiful Parables of the Quran, vol. 1, p. 75.

[63] The Message of Imam Amir al-Mu’minīn (‘a), vol. 9, p. 324.

[64] Ibid.

[65] You are being Asked [A Series of Quran-based Questions addressed to the Prophet of Islam (ṣ)], p. 129.

[66] Ibid.

[67] Ibid.

[68] The Encyclopedia of Comparative Fiqh, vol. 2, p. 360.

[69] The Story of the Companions: a Series of Discussions on the Interpretation of the Quran by Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, p. 288.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Beautiful Parables of the Quran, vol. 1, p. 75.

[72] Ibid.

[73] You are being Asked [A Series of Quran-based Questions addressed to the Prophet of Islam (ṣ)], p. 128.

[74] The Great Oaths of the Quran, p. 267.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid.

[78] Ibid.

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] The Secrets behind the Underdevelopment of the East, p. 134.

[82] Ibid.

[83] Ibid, p. 137.

[84] Ibid.

[85] Ibid, p. 138.

[86] Ibid, p. 141.

[87] The Letter of Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi to the UN Secretary General, 1367.01.28 Sh.  

[88] Ibid.

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Ibid.

[92] Ibid.